Question approach and qualifies to be used in Entrepreneurship

1. Distinguish or differentiate use while or whereas put that conjunction on a separate line

2. Sources, indicators, tools, forms, principles, types, laws, essentials, elements, features, characteristics, traits and components just give the point, and then explain

3. Qualities use should and is the only question in entrepreneurship which needs should

4. Challenges use words like low, limited, inadequate, improper, insufficient, inappropriate, shortage and challenge of avoid using poor or lack.

5. Ways, measures, techniques, solutions, remedies, how, methods (begin with    By/through or present continuous tense(ing)

6. a) what measures can be taken, what measures should be taken, what measures are being taken, what can the government do, what should the government do, what has been done (begin with By/through or (ing) present continuous tense. Avoid talking of your government when giving your answers

b) Any question that ends with the word in Uganda. Give only the present continuous tense when beginning or stating your points. (this is the applicable question)

7. Steps, procedures, process (use chronological order, present continuous tense)

8. Circumstances, situations and conditions (begin with: when, If and incase)

9. When may (begin: when, if and incase)

10. Aims, goals, objectives, reasons, purposes, functions and rationale (begin: To)

11. Why may (begin: To)

12. Factors considered (give a neutral point, full stop, one sided explanation)

13. Factors influencing/determining/affecting (give a neutral point then put a full stop, then explain but avoid speculative statements like will, can, may)

14. Uses, benefits, merits, advantages, demerits, disadvantages, relevancies, significances (use present simple tense), like it leads, enables, promotes) but only when the question is in singular and in plural answer like lead, promote, enable etc) avoid used of can, should, may and likely i.e. direct explanation

15. Compared with, over or preferred to (use unlike, than or compared to)

16. Single edged/ biased questions, limitations, Factors promoting, barriers, hindrances, constraints (give one sided answer and explain according to question/ or one sided explanation)

17. Effects, impacts, implications, consequences, results (give both positive and negative effects separately) avoid past tense

18. Roles, responsibilities (use an action verb with words ending with tion, Sion, ment or use present continuous tense(ing)

19. What is the role, describe (give only positive)

20. Examine, discuss, and assess (give positive and negative)

21. Why is it necessary (use To)

Paper 2

Project Management Skills


This chapter aims at enabling learners to develop the skills of applying the theoretical concepts of entrepreneurship education to real life situations.


This is a three (3) hours written examination which tests a candidate’s conceptualization of entrepreneurship education concepts and how to apply them to the real world situation.

Paper 230/2 has 6 optional questions and a candidate is required to attempt any four (4) questions, each question carries 25 marks. Questions in this section test how the candidate has developed the skills of applying the theoretical concepts of entrepreneurship education to real life situations.

Key Areas In Project Management Work

Candidates should take note that any project work question must have:

  • Name of the business which must be meaningful and attractive
  • Business logo
  • Document title
  • Business address and location
  • Business contacts i.e. telephone contacts and email address
  • Frame

Sources documents In Business

 A source document is an original record containing the details of a substantial transaction entered in an accounting system. It’s a document upon which details of transactions or accounting events are recorded.

Examples of source documents   in business include

  • Cash sale slip
  • Price list
  • Catalogue
  • Quotation
  • Local purchase order
  • Package sheet / packaging note
  • Advice note
  • Dispatch note
  • Delivery note
  • Invoices
  • Goods received note
  • Debit note
  • Petty cash voucher
  • Cheque deposit slip
  • Cash deposit slip
  • Clients information form
  • Goods returned note
  • Statement of account
  • Receipt
  • Stock card
  • Stock ledger card
  • Stock requisition form
  • Fund requisition form
  • Employee / personal record card for your workers
  • Employees payment voucher (pay slip for workers)
  • Payment voucher
  • Cheque
  • Cash withdraw form / slip
  • Purchase contract note
  • Share certificate

Key areas / features of source documents

Almost all source documents have the following features

  • Name of the business which must be meaningful and attractive
  • Business logo
  • date
  • Business address and location
  • Business address i.e. telephone contact and or email address
  • Frame which encloses all the particulars of the documents
  • Source document title e.g. payment voucher
  • Source document number
  • Name and address of the recipient
  • Particular of items / goods and their respective values
  • Name and signatures of the authorities

Common words under source documents

Design /draft. A question that requires a candidate to design or draft means that as the candidate is giving his/her answer, he/she is not supposed to fill in all the details of the documents. Such details to be excluded in this case include the date, name and address of the recipient, particulars of items / goods and their respective values, names and signatures of the authorities.


In most cases source documents come with pre-printed document number that usually appear in red ink. Hence whether the question requires the candidate to design or prepare, he/she is free to indicate the document number

Prepare/ write. A question that requires a candidate to write or prepare means that as the candidate is giving his/her answers, he/she is supposed to fill in a the necessary details in the document being prepared or written.

Entrepreneurship Education Presentation On Paper Two (P230/2)

  • This is an application paper that requires candidates to make an application of what they have learnt from the theory part of the subject.
  • This paper has got challenges to many students in a way that most students have a misconception that questions for this paper are from financial management and purchasing management only. This is not the case. The paper extracts its questions from all topics of the syllabus.
  • Therefore students should not draw a demarcation between papers in terms of topics but rather on formulation of questions.
  1. Distinction Between Preparing And Designing Documents
  2. This distinction only applies to source documents but not to; illustrations like, adverts, human resource documents such as job specification, description etc. it is not also applicable to programs, schedule and procedure, steps, process etc

Note. The format for all programs is the same. The variation is only on activities

  1. Questions About Policy Documents/ Guidelines
  2. A variety of words can be used here e.g. prepare, draft, develop, propose, present, write, suggest, and formulate etc. However, the presentation shall remain the same irrespective of the word used in the question.
  3. The possible sources of such questions include; areas with ways, techniques, suggestions, proposals, tools among others. The answer to such questions is governed by 3 instructions;
  4. Use shall or present simple tense
  5. Be specific
  6. Avoid personalizing the business i.e. avoid use of I, My, We and Our.

 This is because we do not draft guidelines for ourselves as owners of the business but the guidelines are drafted for the business.

  • Business policy documents should also carry business name and address
  1. Writing Sections Of The Business Plan

Irrespective of whether you are preparing a business plan for an existing business or for a business not yet established, a business plan is prepared or written using the present simple tense. This is because the business plan is a working document to which the business shall always refer. Other guiding instructions are;

  • Being specific
  • Avoiding personalizing the business
  1. Writing Skills
  2. Writing skills can be tested in various ways such as writing letters, circulars, notices, memos and reports.
  3. The most important skill tested here is the style/format of letter writing where by the candidate has to be consistent with the style opted for from beginning to end.
  4. Other important area tested here is the flow of information i.e., how parts of the letter are following one another. This information is tested from communication skills and a variety of work can be tested here.
  5. Also emphasize areas such as; whether you are writing to an insider or outsider which will guide you on how to write the receivers address. This implies when writing to an insider, the receivers address is same as the writer’s address unlike when writing to an outsider.
  6. Writing General Description Of The Business
  7. This consists of a summary statement of the business that aims at explaining the following;
  8. Name and address of the business
  9. Physical location of the business
  10. Legal form or nature of the business
  11. Background of the business
  12. Goods offered by the business
  13. Customers of the business
  14. Description of the business assets
  15. The SWOT analysis
  16. Vision statement of the business
  17. Mission statement
  18. Goals of the business
  19. Objectives of the business


  • Any of  the vision, mission, goals and objectives shall represent the rest because they all rotate around the purpose of the business
  • Use the present simple tense

Financial Management Questions

The possible sources of questions for A’ level entrepreneurship P230/2 financial management questions are;

  • Financial statement Accounting
  • Cash flow statements
  • Taxation

To create a difference between “O” Level and “A” level Entrepreneurship, National Curriculum Development Centre NCDC) of recent puts much emphasis on interpreting the results of the business performance

  • The interpretation of such results is basically based on definition of the ratio being interpreted or variables in the formula
  • The candidate should master very well stating the different formulae, in addition to indicating the correct  units for every answer got depending on what is being calculated.

Possible Questions In Paper 2 As Per The Topics In The Syllabus

Topic 1: introduction to Entrepreneurship

  • Guidelines for coping with change
  • Guidelines for enhancing creativity
  • Guidelines for promoting innovation
  • Guidelines for negotiation
  • Guidelines for developing  good business ethics
  • Communication skills. These include
  • Writing skills (ref. category 3 of main presentation)
  • Guidelines for developing effective communication
  • Guidelines for handling difficult customers
  • Guidelines for attending to messages
  • Guidelines to be followed when presenting a product to customers
  • Guidelines when bargaining a product with customers
  • Guidelines for recovering overdue debts
  • Communication documents such as, writing business letter , memorandum, notices, reports, minutes of the meeting , circulars, banners etc
  • Guidelines for developing a good personal brand

Topic 2: Social Entrepreneurship

  • Developing mission statement
  • Programme for becoming social entrepreneur
  • GEPIC structure for advocacy for promoting the business
  • Root cause analysis tool
  • Sections of social enterprise plan

Topic 3: business idea and opportunity identification

  • Program for turning a business idea into product
  • Program for determining the profitability of the business

Topic 4: small and medium enterprises

  • Guidelines for ensuring success of a small business
  • Programme for taking an insurance policy

Topic 5: gender and entrepreneurship

  • Guidelines for enhancing gender partnership in business

Topic 6: Business plan preparation

  • Executive summary
  • Writing parts of the business plan like
  • General description of the business.
  • Statement of mission, vision and objectives of the business.
  • Marketing plan.
  • Financial plan.
  • Production plan / operational plan
  • Organizational plan / administration plan / management
  • Action plan / implementation plan

Other related documents

  • Business profile
  • Organizational chart

Topic 7: Production management

  • Program for purchasing business requirements
  • Source documents such as inquiry, quotation, purchase order, price list, invoice, receipt, dispatch note, goods received note, delivery note etc.
  • Stock cards, stock requisition form
  • Designing time schedules
  • Guidelines for effective time management
  • Designing plant layout / production process flow plan
  • Preparing budgets
  • Packaging labels
  • Production schedules
  • Work weekly schedules
  • Vehicle maintenance schedule
  • Production guidelines. They include
  • Guidelines when managing personnel
  • Guidelines to minimize the cost of production
  • Guidelines to ensure proper management of inventory
  • Guidelines to ensure the welfare of the staff
  • Guidelines for handling hazardous substance
  • Guidelines to minimize accidents when transporting raw materials
  • Guidelines for ensuring security of the workplace
  • Guidelines to be followed when purchasing raw materials
  • Guidelines to ensure quality production
  • Safety guidelines for workers / employees
  • Guidelines to cleanliness at production work
  • Guidelines followed when designing a product
  • Guidelines to be followed when handling machines
  • Guidelines to promote hygiene at production place.

Topic 8: marketing management and product promotion

  • Field visit guide
  • Designing a questionnaire/market survey guide
  • SWOT analysis guide
  • Guidelines for effective marketing strategy
  • Guidelines for effective market segmentation
  • Guidelines for presenting business products to customers
  • Customer opinion form / client from
  • Launching program
  • Promotional program
  • Customer satisfaction  survey tool
  • Designing different forms of adverts
  • Designing distribution schedules
  • Designing a market flow chart
  • Guidelines for good customer care
  • Designing a customer satisfaction survey form
  • Programme for creative selling process
  • Marketing illustrations like business cards / new paper adverts, sign posts, fliers , brochures , bill boards, business logo  etc

Topic 9: managing personnel / human resource management

Designing or preparing 

  • Job application form
  • Job specification
  • Program for recruiting  business employees
  • Program for training business employees
  • Induction program for new employees
  • Job adverts
  • Interview guide
  • Curriculum vitae
  • Employee contract
  • Human resource guidelines
  • Job description
  • Job analysis
  • Performance appraisal form
  • Payroll
  • Pay slip
  • Guidelines for motivating employees
  • Employees’ code of conduct to promote discipline
  • Rules and regulations followed by business employees

Topic 10: Loan management and related documents

  • Loan repayment schedules
  • Loan application form
  • Guidelines for loan management
  • Program for obtaining a loan
  • Credit recovery loan program
  • Guidelines when selling goods on credit
  • Terms and conditions of lending
  • Hire purchase agreement
  • Guidelines to be followed when giving a loan
  • Related documents in loan management
  • Debtors reminder note
  • Credit status inquiry

Topic 11: source documents

  • An inquiry
  • Quotation
  • Price list
  • Catalogue
  • Purchase local order
  • Credit status inquiry
  • Delivery note
  • An invoice
  • Credit note
  • Debit note
  • Packaging sheet
  • Goods received note
  • Goods returned note
  • Statement of account
  • Receipt

Note: other related documents include

  • Stock card
  • Cash deposit slip
  • Cheque deposit slip
  • Standing order
  • Stock requisition form
  • Prospectus
  • Share certificate


  • Types of budgets
  • General budget
  • Financial budgets

Topic 12: financial management

  • Concept of double entry
  • Ledgers
  • Trial balance
  • Final accounts i.e. income statement / trading profit and loss account / statement of compressive income and balance sheet / statement of financial position.
  • Ratios and their interpretation
  • Cash flow statement
  • Tax computations

Paper 3

Teaching Syllabus

Paper 3 unlike paper 1 and paper 2 has no syllabus. It borrows information from all topics of entrepreneurship syllabus including financial management from which questions are asked

It therefore covers areas like

  • Introduction to entrepreneurship education
  • Entrepreneurship skills
  • Business opportunities
  • Business ideas
  • Business ethics
  • Social entrepreneurship
  • Risks and risk management
  • Small and medium enterprises
  • Business planning
  • Production management
  • Quality management
  • Product promotion
  • Marketing management
  • Coping with competition
  • Personnel management
  • Capital markets and collective investment schemes
  • Corporate governance
  • Taxation
  • Gender and entrepreneurship
  • Entrepreneurial environment

Examination tips/approach

Section a

Section A consists of a case study and is compulsory. The case study tests student’s understanding and comprehension of entrepreneurial concepts. A case study regarding entrepreneurs is presented to the candidates to test their understanding and interpretation of concepts. The case study covers a number of topics in entrepreneurship syllabus including financial management, from which questions are asked.


While answering questions in this section, candidates should put emphasis on the kind of question being attempted. This is because some questions require evidence from the case study that helps to back up the candidate’s answers in order to earn a full mark(s). However, not all questions may require evidence from the case study.

Section B

This section assesses student’s participation in school business clubs that are the laboratory for entrepreneurship education; it aims at measuring the personal development that candidates go through in their school business clubs.


  • Language used is preferably past tense since at the end of the two years of study; the candidate must dissolve their projects. Hence we use words like was, were, had etc.
  • Evidence in form of description, examples is strictly required
  • Name and address of business includes business name, box number, district and contacts
  • The business location should include the village, parish, sub parish or if not the candidate should give an outstanding physical features e.g opposite school canteen, main hall, Kampala taxi park
  • The business purpose should be written within two years of candidate’s study
  • Uniqueness of the business may be in form of unique features like workers, assets, buildings, production methods, legal ownership, and customers being served
  • The sources of funds must carry the values/ amounts of money
  • The SWOT analysis should be in line with industry


Field attachment is a field based practical training experience that prepares learners for the tasks they are expected to perform on completion of their education. Here, students are required to participate in the field attachment in real businesses at their own conveniences; however, it is advisable that students take the field attachment during their holiday


  • Language used here is preferably present tense since the business still exists. Hence we use words like is, are, has etc
  • Evidence in form of description, example is strictly required
  • Name and address of business includes business name, box number, district and contacts
  • The business location should include the village, parish, sub parish or if not the candidate should give an outstanding physical features e.g opposite Kampala taxi park, even location in town may also include / use of street, plot number
  • Uniqueness of the business may be in form of unique features like workers, assets, buildings, production methods, legal ownership, and customers being served
  • The sources of funds may or may not carry the values/ amounts of money
  • The SWOT analysis should be in line with industry

Requirements Of Learners In Preparation For Paper 3

  • Active participation in the practical activities. No dodging of practical work/club activity, field attachment and field trip.
  • Gathering and giving evidence for every point raised in class notes, tests and exams.
  • For biased questions students must give reason when the question is not applicable to their project
  • Observation and use of the relevant language/tense used in the question
  • Thorough knowledge of theory. i.e. P230/1 for easier and quicker deriving of points especially class notes focusing on; –
  • Production process.
  •  production activities
  •  Documents.
  •  record books
  •  costs,
  • challenges,
  •  Risks.
  • Problems faced.
  • Financial management.
  • Impact of the business.
  • Taxation, among others.
  • Adequate general information on business to be derived from O- Level text books.

Key Topics For Paper Three P230/3

Questions for paper three – P230/3 can be derived from all topics, however, the main topics on which paper three practical activities focus are: –

  • Introduction to entrepreneurship Education.
  • Production management.
  • Marketing management.
  • Sales promotion.
  • Financial management, and
  • Managing personnel among others.

Common mistakes made in paper 3

  1. Failure to read and understand instructions. This is still a challenge to some candidates. In this paper, section A is compulsory and a candidate may either answer all the two questions from section B about the school business projects and answer one question from section C or a candidate is free to answer the two questions in section C and pick one from section B making it a total of four (4) questions.
  2. Failure to read, analyze and interpret the case study. Some students have a bias towards reading the case study yet it is a compulsory question. This implies that such candidates give answers without attaching evidence from the case study as if they are answering questions of paper 1. The end result of this is that such candidates score either zero or little marks in this section.
  3. Poor question selection. This usually happens in section B and section C. some questions in these two sections tend to be unfriendly but at times it is hard for a candidate to distinguish between them.  A candidate mat chose a question where he / she may not even score 10/25. This is usually caused by such questions having simple sub-sections that one may easily answer.
  4. Giving answers in an outlined form. Paper 3 is a practical paper that requires candidates to answer the WHY (mentioning the point) and How (giving evidence). This implies that after the candidate has given a correct answer, he / she must go an extra mile to convince the examiner by giving a perfect example or evidence from the case study, school business project, field attachment or field trip


The greatest challenge in this paper is actually here. Candidates present answers which at times are correct but lack evidence / examples to back up their answers. This implies that where one would score full marks, he / she ends up getting half.

  • Failure to participate in school business projects. Like we saw earlier, paper 3 is a practical paper that requires hands on. Questions set in section B about business projects require perfect knowledge from the candidate about day-to-day activities in the project. However, some students tend to take this for granted hoping to generate answers direct from paper 1. This is indeed very dangerous and wrong because these answers will have no evidence at all.
  • Failure to carry out field attachments / field trips. Field attachment is mainly used to answer question (4) while field trips are used to answer question (5)

Common terms used in setting in paper 3

Before we look at these terminologies first of all, we need to appreciate the nature and demands of this paper i.e. the WHY (mentioning the point) and HOW (giving evidence). However, in so doing, we also need to know that in some cases, the how i.e. evidence is implied in the statement / answer raised. Hence it is the duty of the student to identify areas where evidence is implied and not.

  1. Illustrate / draw. This requires the candidate to illustrate the answer with the aid of drawing / diagram. For example, draw / illustrate the layout, organizational chart etc., of the business you were attached.
  2. Describe. The candidate is excepted to give a point and then explain it in details with evidence


Candidates tend to confuse the above two words in exams. For instance, a question may be “Describe the layout of the business you were attached to” “most students will end up giving the answer by drawing the lay out which is wrong. This question requires answers in an essay form (paragraphs) and not a drawing. However, evidence for each answer must be given. This will be in form of giving the purpose / use of each element stated. For example, store / ware house (why / mentioning) for storing both raw materials and finished goods (how evidence).

  1. Explain. The candidate is supposed to give a very clear and some detailed point with evidence
  2. State/give/list/ mention/ outline. The candidate is supposed to give a brief but clear point say of one or one and half times but with evidence
  3. What. This requires the candidate to explain, “what is” by giving clearly explained points but with evidence
  4. Why/give reasons. The candidate is supposed to give a reasoned answer to the question but with evidence.